The mission to build a body of expertise for the Protection of Civilians (POC) has become a major challenge to peace operations throughout the world. The last ten years have brought to the fore a focus on the rights of civilian populations. In this time, the United Nations (UN) and the African Union have made considerable progress to strengthen POC effectiveness. Yet challenges remain. Armed conflict is still prevalent around the world, civilians comprise the majority of casualties, and the need for global POC strategies is vital. Protection is a broad term and activities falling under it require a comprehensive approach involving all actors involved in an operational area. These include international organisations, national governments, local communities, non-governmental organisations, military, police, and civilian personnel.