Archive

Organising for Peace Operations: Lessons Learned from Bougainville East Timor and the Solomon Islands

Abstract This report examines the governmental organizational structures used in three Australian-led interventions in the late 1990s and early 2000s in the Southwest Pacific regions: Bougainville, East Timor, and the Solomon Islands. Whole-of-government efforts requiring coordination across many parts of the Australian Government characterized each of these unique operations, in which different organisational approaches were used to manage the participation of various agencies. During the course of the research, it became apparent that, over time, numerous lessons were learned as branches of the Australian Government gained experience in how best to interact with one another and manage complex operations of this type. The report describes the key Australian agencies that participated in the three operations, the coordinating mechanisms they adopted, and the specific roles they played. In addition to providing insights that should be useful for the preparation and conduct of operations outside Australia, the information in this report also should be useful in terms of better whole-of-government operations inside Australian territory. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 1-2016 – Illicit Small Arms in the Pacific

Abstract With the exception of Papua New Guinea, the number of illicit small arms likely to be in circulation in Western Pacific island countries is not particularly large or widespread. The region remains relatively ‘gun free’ as Philip Alpers’ recently proclaimed. Supply is not bountiful, controls in the form of regional and national laws are sound, disarmament and amnesties have been somewhat successful, and demand is neither strong nor state or region-wide—Papua New Guinea being the exception. In broader context, the Pacific Institute for Public Policy points out that: The Pacific has seen its share of coups and conflict, but deserves recognition for being a largely peaceful region … It also has a wealth of traditional mechanisms to end conflict … It is worth bearing this in mind as the region develops a more ‘bottom-up’ approach to contemporary security issues. The project conducted a strategic assessment, rather than a detailed stocktake, of the illicit small arms in the Western Pacific island region with a focus on Fiji, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea (excluding Bougainville). As anticipated, most of the illicit small arms in the region come from within the countries studied and are largely recirculated within them. However, there are…

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Strengthening the Rule of Law through the United Nations Security Council: Policy Proposals

Abstract These Policy Proposals are the product of a three-year Australian Research Council-funded project on ‘Strengthening the Rule of Law through the UN Security Council’. The project is a collaboration between the Australian National University’s Centre for International Governance and Justice and the Australian Government’s Australian Civil-Military Centre. The project examined the relationship between the Security Council and the rule of law when it uses three of its most prominent tools for the maintenance of international peace and security, namely peace operations, sanctions and force. An important project aim was to develop policy proposals to enhance the Security Council’s ability to strengthen the rule of law when it deploys peace operations, applies sanctions and authorises the use of force. During the course of the Strengthening the Rule of Law project a series of eight workshops were convened, involving highly engaged practitioners and academics. Four workshops took place at the Australian National University in Canberra and four were hosted by the Australian Mission to the United Nations in New York. Each workshop brought together a blend of 25-30 practitioners and academics who were experts and creative thinkers in the area of focus. Two hundred and twelve participants were involved across all workshops,…

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Australian Guidelines for the Protection of Civilians

Abstract The Australian Guidelines for the Protection of Civilians (the Guidelines) provide a whole-of-government perspective on the Protection of Civilians (POC) in international situations of armed conflict and other situations of violence. The Guidelines are the product of extensive consultation, facilitated by the Australian Civil-Military Centre, and includes broad representation of Australian government and non-government organisations. In contemporary conflicts civilians are increasingly the targets of systematic and opportunistic violence, including indiscriminate or disproportionate attacks, sexual and gender-based violence and other violations of international law. This situation continues despite the existing protections provided by international humanitarian and human rights law. Clearly, more needs to be done. These Guidelines help identify who has responsibility and what needs to be done when protection of civilians is an issue. They place support for the rule of law at the centre of Australian operational responses. While focusing on operations involving the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the Australian Federal Police (AFP), they also build a shared understanding of POC across the full range of government departments and agencies that will contribute to an offshore operation. The Guidelines provide guidance on how to implement Australia’s POC focus areas: Protection through dialogue and engagement Provision of physical…

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Asian Perspectives on Civil-Military-Police Relations and Coordination in Disaster Management

Abstract The Asian Perspectives on Civil-Military-Police Relations and Coordination in Disaster Management study explores the historical evolution of civil-military-police relations in Asia and the role that the military plays in Asian societies today in relation to disaster response. It focuses on how military and police actors mandated to respond in natural disasters interact with established response structures such as national/regional/local disaster management agencies along with the international humanitarian system. The study informs international disaster and crisis management stakeholders that are likely to participate in emergency response operations in Asia such as international non-government organisations, the United Nations, regional groupings like ASEAN, and donor governments. Part 2 of the report serves as a stakeholder guide which provides practical insights into Asian perspectives on civil-military-police relations and coordination in disaster management. It assists contributing countries, such as the Australian Government, to understand better the contexts in which they may operate to assist Asian countries in natural disasters and in planning for such engagements. This research explores the socio-political and civil-military-police relations context, and analyses the role that Asian militaries and the civilian humanitarian sector play in responding to disasters. The research contributes to informing and preparing donors and international stakeholders that are…

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Skills for Multiagency Responses to International Crises

Abstract Australian responses to international, complex emergencies and humanitarian crises, generated by natural disaster, conflicts or incidents, demand the coordinated responses of multiple civil-military-police actors and agencies. A scoping study of Australian government agency training needs in the latter half of 2013 indicated that stakeholder agencies continue to have difficulty in identifying and developing individual skills to enable people to operate effectively in a high-pressure crisis environment that requires an integrated civil-military-police response. Agencies highlighted the need to develop a ‘whole-of-government’ set of skills for civil-military-police interaction that would complement agency specific skills. In 2015, the Australian Civil-Military Centre (ACMC) commissioned Sustineo to undertake a project to address this gap. This report, based on Sustineo’s research and consultations, goes some way to identifying the skills needed for effective civil-military-police interaction. However, the list is not exhaustive. In fact, the report highlights the difficulty of articulating a specific set of multiagency, cross-cutting skills for civil-military-police interaction. Practitioners gave consistent advice that specific skills were less important than other factors in successful civil-military-police interaction. Skills and training are only one component of success. The factors that can facilitate and enhance civil-military-police interaction and the strategies required to address those factors are much…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 2-2015 – Security Sector Reform Trends: Conflict-Affected States and International Responses

Abstract This background paper outlines issues that emerged from research commissioned by the Australian Civil-Military Centre (ACMC) in early 2013 to map international perspectives and trends in security sector reform (SSR). The concept of SSR has evolved over the last two decades to describe a range of efforts to improve the security of a state and its citizens through an effective, affordable, accountable and transparent security sector. In all cases, but particularly for conflict-affected states, SSR is about governance of the security sector. Many Australian government departments and agencies, civil society and other organisations have contributed to SSR throughout the post-Cold War period. One trend observed in war-to-peace transitions after the Cold War is that the more expansive peace processes that follow complex civil wars still centre on first gaining agreement about future security arrangements. Some of the most common provisions in peace agreements include restructuring the security apparatus, demobilisation, and re-establishing civilian oversight over state security institutions. These ambitious goals mean timing, sequencing and political legitimacy are critical to achieve meaningful reform within and between those institutions. Transitional political arrangements after conflict—in place until the first post-conflict elections—were shorter (under two years) in many cases in the 1990s, and…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 1-2015 – Privateers in Australia’s Conflict and Disaster Zones

Abstract In the conflict and disaster zones where Australia’s military, representatives and aid workers have deployed in the past two decades, private security companies (PSCs) have been a feature of the operating environment, used by other governments, militaries, non-government organisations and multinational companies. Now, PSCs have become an integral part of Australian Government operations overseas. They are employed to secure diplomats in high threat environments, assess security at Australian facilities, and to protect government officials during overseas visits. In Australia’s region too, PSCs are becoming more common, particularly in Papua New Guinea and on commercial shipping in the Indian Ocean. This paper tracks the development of the private security industry and its relevance to Australia. It illustrates how and where PSCs operate and considers the lessons learned from a decade of employing PSCs—particularly those operating in war zones. It tracks the various international efforts underway to regulate and improve the private security industry, as well as the current and future issues Australians should be aware of when interacting with PSCs. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

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Australian Government Guiding Principles for Civil-Military-Police Interaction in International Disaster and Conflict Management

Abstract The Australian Government’s Guiding Principles for Civil-Military-Police Interaction in International Disaster and Conflict Management (the Guiding Principles) has been developed by the Australian Civil-Military Centre (ACMC) in collaboration with the Departments of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (PM&C), Defence (ADF), Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), Attorney-General’s (AGD), Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the Australian Council for International Development (ACFID). The Departments of Treasury and Immigration have also reviewed and contributed to the Guiding Principles. The Guiding Principles outline five strategic principles, agreed at working and senior levels across government, to inform policy and planning for international disaster and conflict management. The Guiding Principles does not seek to replace current multiagency or single agency documents and policies. It aims to provide common strategic imperatives to improve the effectiveness of whole-of-government collaboration in a multiagency environment. The Guiding Principles is designed to build on the unique capabilities of all stakeholders. The agreed principles are: • Clearly define strategic objectives and operational roles and responsibilities • Engage proactively • Share knowledge and understanding • Leverage organisational diversity • Commit to continuous improvement The Guiding Principles is intended for policy makers and a range of stakeholders engaged in disaster and conflict response. They…

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Civil-Military-Police Language Guide

Abstract The civil-military-police community is as diverse as it is broad. It contains a wide range of actors who employ a variety of methodologies and techniques, use unique equipment and often pursue different objectives in service of different masters. Diversity is a strength of the civil-military-police domain, although a common understanding is required between community members to realise that strength. The range of different terminology employed across the civil-military-police community can make it difficult to form a common understanding. Strategic level decision making should be driven by shared information and understandings. A Civil-Military-Police Language Guide can help ensure that information sourced from the operational level is precise, consistent and unambiguous. The demand for these qualities increases during crises. This Civil-Military-Police Language Guide is not intended to force participants to conform to any single set of terms; different sectors within the civil-military-police community may use different terminology. However, recognising and respecting the differences between actors is vital. The terminology employed by each actor can hold vastly different meanings, with implications for planning, preparedness and investment in activities such as training. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

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