Archive

Humanitarian Spaces: Understanding Military-NGO interaction in conflict and disaster

Abstract This paper is a precursor to an in-depth study being carried out with the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and RMIT University, outlining the need for improved understanding of the challenges and opportunities of Military-NGO interaction in complex post-conflict spaces. It is well known that military and NGO operations occupy overlapping spaces in conflict environments, with distinct and divergent cultures and mandates for those operations. However, their understanding of and attitudes towards each other and their missions are equally significant in defining their capacity and willingness to work constructively in tandem. Indeed, the minimum requirement of civilian and military organisations is to work in the same location, if not necessarily cooperatively or collaboratively. Harris highlights that as a result of geo-political and combat developments globally, key actors now regularly find themselves outside of their traditional zones of operation – militaries as peacekeepers, transitional police; NGOs operating in increasingly violent environments, while attempting to maintain independence. Humanitarian Spaces outlines important differences in the meaning of common terminology, such as “humanitarian” and “CIMIC/CMCoord”, the combination of significant security needs and human needs necessitating distinct multi-sector responses to conflict, and the difficulties of perceptions of conflict response operations by those affected, as key…

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Asian Perspectives on Civil-Military-Police Relations and Coordination in Disaster Management

Abstract The Asian Perspectives on Civil-Military-Police Relations and Coordination in Disaster Management study explores the historical evolution of civil-military-police relations in Asia and the role that the military plays in Asian societies today in relation to disaster response. It focuses on how military and police actors mandated to respond in natural disasters interact with established response structures such as national/regional/local disaster management agencies along with the international humanitarian system. The study informs international disaster and crisis management stakeholders that are likely to participate in emergency response operations in Asia such as international non-government organisations, the United Nations, regional groupings like ASEAN, and donor governments. Part 2 of the report serves as a stakeholder guide which provides practical insights into Asian perspectives on civil-military-police relations and coordination in disaster management. It assists contributing countries, such as the Australian Government, to understand better the contexts in which they may operate to assist Asian countries in natural disasters and in planning for such engagements. This research explores the socio-political and civil-military-police relations context, and analyses the role that Asian militaries and the civilian humanitarian sector play in responding to disasters. The research contributes to informing and preparing donors and international stakeholders that are…

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Australian Government Guiding Principles for Civil-Military-Police Interaction in International Disaster and Conflict Management

Abstract The Australian Government’s Guiding Principles for Civil-Military-Police Interaction in International Disaster and Conflict Management (the Guiding Principles) has been developed by the Australian Civil-Military Centre (ACMC) in collaboration with the Departments of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (PM&C), Defence (ADF), Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), Attorney-General’s (AGD), Australian Federal Police (AFP) and the Australian Council for International Development (ACFID). The Departments of Treasury and Immigration have also reviewed and contributed to the Guiding Principles. The Guiding Principles outline five strategic principles, agreed at working and senior levels across government, to inform policy and planning for international disaster and conflict management. The Guiding Principles does not seek to replace current multiagency or single agency documents and policies. It aims to provide common strategic imperatives to improve the effectiveness of whole-of-government collaboration in a multiagency environment. The Guiding Principles is designed to build on the unique capabilities of all stakeholders. The agreed principles are: • Clearly define strategic objectives and operational roles and responsibilities • Engage proactively • Share knowledge and understanding • Leverage organisational diversity • Commit to continuous improvement The Guiding Principles is intended for policy makers and a range of stakeholders engaged in disaster and conflict response. They…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 1-2013 – Gendered Crises, Gendered Responses

Abstract Armed conflicts and natural disasters are inherently gendered crises; they can affect women, men, girls and boys in profoundly different ways. It is increasingly accepted that understanding these differences—or adopting a gender perspective—improves the effectiveness of responses to these crises, as well as the efforts of policy-making, advocacy, research and training institutions that focus on them. A gender perspective is more frequently recognised as a core requirement for all personnel involved in these efforts. However, there are many who are expected to engage with gender issues, yet remain unfamiliar with them. For this audience, there is a dearth of literature that provides an introductory overview of gender issues in crisis environments. This paper is intended to be an educational and awareness-raising resource for those who are beginning to engage with gender issues in crisis environments, whether they are civilian, military or police. It examines gender dimensions commonly observed in conflict and disaster environments, such as differences in casualty trends, risks, threats, vulnerabilities, needs, opportunities and stresses. It provides examples of the operational benefits of a gender perspective and the harmful consequences resulting from the absence of a gender perspective. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

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Civil-military interaction and the future of humanitarian action

Abstract This paper is structured into three (3) parts: a brief update on the evaluation of the humanitarian enterprise in the past 10 years lesson from civil-military interaction in the three recent crises what we can expect in the years to 2020. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

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CMAC 2011 Background Paper – Enhancing the Protection of Civilians in Peace Operations: From Policy to Practice

Abstract This background paper seeks to provide participants of the Enhancing the Protection of Civilians in Peace Operations: From Policy to Practice workshop with an overview of progress on the latest reforms since 2009 to improve peace operations’ ability and willingness to fulfill their POC mandates, and how these developments could impact the security and rights of women and children in conflict and post-conflict environments. The paper focuses on developments undertaken by the United Nations in recognition of the notable efforts to close the capability gap. This builds on previous research and workshops, including the background paper and resulting conference report of the Third International Forum for the Challenges of Peace Operations (Challenges Forum), 27–29 April 2010, hosted in Queanbeyan, Australia, by the Asia Pacific Civil-Military Centre of Excellence. The Challenges Forum and the papers provide an overview of the evolution of the POC concept and offer detailed observations and recommendations aimed at making POC in UN and regional peace operations more effective (Durch and Giffen 2010:21-84; Wilmot 2010). This paper does not address many of the laudable steps taken by the UN and regional organizations in the past year to enhance the prevention of and response to violence against…

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Strengthening Australia’s Conflict and Disaster Management Overseas

Abstract Strengthening Australia’s Conflict and Disaster Management Overseas is a ‘conceptual framework’ that provides ongoing assistance to departments and agencies in further advancing their collaborative management mechanisms for international crises. The document has been facilitated by the Asia Pacific Civil-Military Centre of Excellence (the Centre) (now known as the Australian Civil-Military Centre) in close consultation with departments and agencies, and will undergo continuous development. The framework explains Australia’s comprehensive civil-military approach to conflict and disaster management overseas. This approach is based on a set of guiding principles that enhance collaboration between departments and agencies and better enables them to achieve outcomes with the most efficient use of available resources. The key Australian departments and agencies involved in conflict and disaster management are the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (PM&C), the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), the Department of Defence (Defence), the Attorney-General’s Department (AGD), the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and the Australian Federal Police (AFP). Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

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RAMSI and Solomon Islands: History and Challenges for Civil-Military interaction

Abstract At the outset it is worth making the point that the work and experience of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands or RAMSI is very much relevant to the themes of the conference of civil-military-police interaction. At its inception in 2003, RAMSI was conceived as a comprehensive mission that would involve police, military and development components. It would also be a long-term mission, which was envisaged to last for about ten years. From the beginning, it has always had a civilian leader, the RAMSI Special Coordinator, and has been a police led operation, with the military playing a supporting role. Justin Fepulea’i Justin Fepulea’i commenced as RAMSI’s Deputy Special Coordinator in March 2009. As Deputy Special Coordinator, Justin Fepulea’i deputises for the Special Co-ordinator, and has specific responsibilities for RAMSI civilian security and the SIG-RAM SI Partnership Framework. Prior to commencing with RAMSI, Dr Fepulea’i served within the Americas Division of New Zealand’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, where he was responsible for New Zealand’s relations with the United States. Dr Fepulea’i joined New Zealand’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade in December 2006, having previously served as a policy officer in the New Zealand Ministry of…

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Defining ASEAN’s role in peace operations: Helping to bring peacebuilding “upstream”?

Abstract Contemporary peace operations have evolved tremendously from the traditional peacekeeping operations of only a couple of decades ago, with peacekeeping objectives increasingly encompassed within a broader peacebuilding agenda. It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts to take stock of the current attitudes towards peace operations in Southeast Asia and to forge a way forward for ASEAN states’ more active engagement within the region and more specifically, with the broader emerging peacebuilding agenda. ASEAN States have often come under criticism for their limited engagement in peace operations. For example, it has been noted that although approximately 40% of armed conflicts have occurred in the wider Asian region, justover 10% of multilateral peace operations have been undertaken there. In the case of Southeast Asia, this is often put down to political and strategic factors – in particular, strong adherence to a traditional understanding of state sovereignty and non-interference. At the same time, however,it must be acknowledged that ASEAN countries have not been completely passive vis-à-vis involvement in regional and international peace operations. In particular, Indonesia, Malaysia andthe Philippines have substantial experience in the provision of uniformed peacekeeping personnel globally. Where ASEAN states have engaged militarily however, it is observed…

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Pakistan Earthquake Management

Abstract On 8 October 2005 at 0850 PST, Pakistan was struck by a huge earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale. This was, at the time, by far the worst natural disaster to have affected the country, creating massive destruction and loss of life. By the end of that fateful day over 600,000 houses had been either damaged or destroyed over an area of 30,000 square km across 9 Districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). The quake left 73,000 dead, more than 70,000 severely injured and approximately three million people without shelter. This presented the nation with one of the greatest challenges it had ever faced. It was a challenge not only for the people affectedby the disaster but also for the Government who had to undertake such a mammoth task of providing relief, then making the transition towards reconstruction and rehabilitation in theaffected areas. According to accounts of the various UN agencies, the affected areas were one of the most logistically challenging in the world. The scale of reconstruction required in such a difficult area had never been previously undertaken. As no model to follow existed,the government had to devise…

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