Archive

Civil-Military Working Paper 3-2013 – A Strategic Framework for Mass Atrocity Prevention

Abstract At the 2005 World Summit of the United Nations, more than 170 Heads of State and Government accepted three interlinked responsibilities, which together constitute the principle of ‘responsibility to protect’ (R2P). First, States accepted their primary responsibility to protect their own population from mass atrocity crimes. Second, they pledged to assist each other in fulfilling their domestic protection responsibilities. And finally, as members of the international community, they assumed the collective responsibility to react, in a timely and decisive manner, if any State were ‘manifestly failing’ to protect its population from mass atrocity crimes. Those three responsibilities are now commonly summarised in the language of R2P’s ‘three pillars’. Among the key constitutive elements of the principle of R2P, prevention has been deemed by many as the single most important. Scholars and policy-makers alike concede that it is both normatively and politically desirable to act early to prevent mass atrocity crimes from being committed—rather than to react after they are already underway. Yet, while the more general topic of conflict prevention has been—and continues to be—a subject of explicit discussion by policy-makers, an important field of inquiry for academics, and a crucial area of advocacy for civil society groups, there…

Read More

Civil-Military Working Paper 2-2013 – The Face of Peace in Afghanistan

Introduction This paper outlines the critical challenges in regards to the evolution of the Afghan National Police (or ANP). Rather than lessons learned per se, the paper argues that the lessons to be learned from the Afghan experience are that the militarisation or securitisation of nascent civilian capabilities is problematic. For a model of civilian policing to be effective, it has to be one that the community desires and/or accepts. For Afghanistan, this also requires a true unity of effort on the part of the international community in supporting an Afghan initiated civilian policing model, even if aspects of the model are not regarded as ideal to the Western eye. Let us start with the proposition that police are the face of peace. Downloads Civil-Military-Working Paper 2-2013 – The Face of Peace in Afghanistan

Read More

Civil-Military Working Paper 1-2013 – Police–military interaction in international peace and stability operations

Abstract Policing is an increasingly important part of peace and stability missions. The word ‘policing’ suggests that it is civilian police who carry out the task, but recent practice has seen a marked rise in the use of more militarised formed police units, as well as indications that there is some acceptance of the use of military police or other military personnel in policing or policing-type tasks. Although some new academic work has been done on the militarisation of law enforcement, broader theoretically informed research into what has been termed ‘third-generation civil–military affairs’ remains fledgling. In addition, there is a dearth of doctrine and guidelines relating to police–military interaction in the field. In 2009 the United Nations developed pre-deployment training guidelines that describe generic roles for police and military personnel in peace operations, but the guidelines are fairly general and more detailed documentation dealing with the relationship between the police and the military in operations does not appear to exist. The aim of this project was to help fill the gap between operationally specific reference documents and abstract academic arguments in order to provide some general guidelines for formulating how police and military personnel should interact and decide on the…

Read More

Future directions in civil-military responses to natural disasters

Abstract Over the last ten years natural disasters affected  more than 2.4 billion people—the equivalent of one-third of the earth’s population—and they have wrought over$910 billion in damages—equivalent to approximately 18 percent of global GDP. Natural disasters affect not only individuals and communities but also economies, governments and the international system. The 373 natural disasters recorded by the International Disaster Database EM-DAT in 2010 affected some 300 million people from all regions: 300 000 lost their lives and many more suffered injuries, family separation and other trauma. Sudden-onset disasters displaced 42 million people from their homes and caused $108.5 billion in economic losses. Ninety-two per cent of the disasters in 2010 were climate-related. The number of disasters has increased in recent decades—from about 100 to 150 a year in the early 1980’s to an annual average of 392 during the 2000 to 2009 decade. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

Read More

Rebuilding war-torn states: tomorrow’s challenges for post-conflict reconstruction

Abstract In the aftermath of the Arab Spring and regime change in many countries, with South Sudan joining the international community as an independent state, and with countries as far apart as Afghanistan, Liberia and Haiti obviously ‘off track’ in their efforts to rebuild their war-torn or disaster-affected communities, it seems a perfect time to review and re-assess policies, strategies and civilian-military interactions for the transition to stability and sustainable peace. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

Read More

Civil-military interaction and the future of humanitarian action

Abstract This paper is structured into three (3) parts: a brief update on the evaluation of the humanitarian enterprise in the past 10 years lesson from civil-military interaction in the three recent crises what we can expect in the years to 2020. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

Read More

Conflict prevention in practice: from rhetoric to reality

Abstract It is natural for policy makers, public officials and even think tanks to focus primarily on violent conflicts that are already occurring. With people being killed daily and horrific images being shown in real time across the globe, today’s conflicts simply cannot be ignored. Yet what about tomorrow’s conflicts, those we can envisage but that are not inevitable? Today there is broad agreement on the importance of preventive action. An array of actors—the United Nations, regional organisations, national governments (including that of the United States) and a host of civil society bodies—have identified preventing violent conflict as a strategic priority. As the Obama administration’s National Security Strategy states, ‘The untold loss of human life, suffering, and property damage that results from armed conflict necessitates that all responsible nations work to prevent it’. This is well put, although it might be asked, ‘Do “all responsible nations” treat the prevention of armed conflict as a “necessity”?’ It is undeniable that far too often the answer is ‘no’. The fundamental challenge is to narrow the gap between rhetoric and reality, proclamations and actions, in preventing violent conflict. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

Read More

Disaster response: lessons from Christchurch

Abstract Lying in New Zealand’s Canterbury Region, Christchurch is a city of about 400 000 people. It is the nation’s second largest city and the South Island’s largest. Although it is mainly on flat land, there are hilly suburbs between the port of Lyttelton and the city itself. At 4.35 am on 4 September 2010 Canterbury suffered an earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter Scale, on the previously unknown Greendale fault line. A local state of emergency was declared that morning, and Christchurch’s central business district was closed to the general public. The New Zealand Army was deployed to help in the worst affected areas of the city. Despite this being a very serious earthquake, no lives were lost. About 5 per cent of the city had been damaged, mostly infrastructure. But this turned out to be only the beginning: on 26 December a 4.9 magnitude aftershock caused further damage, mainly in the CBD. No state of emergency was declared for this event, and nor were any lives lost. Then, at 12.51 pm on 22 February 2011, Christchurch suffered a shallow 6.3 magnitude quake 10 kilometres east of the city centre. Again, this was on a previously unknown fault line, and…

Read More

Improving the Civil-Military Dimension of Disaster-Related Humanitarian Logistics

Abstract The 21st Century has seen a significant rise in all forms of disasters and this has resulted in military and humanitarian personnel becoming more frequently engaged in the provision of support to those affected. Achieving an efficient and effective logistic preparation and response is one of the key elements in mitigating the impact of events, but the establishment of mechanisms to deliver an appropriately integrated civil/military approach remains elusive. Whilst the challenges inherent in the interface between military and humanitarian organisations and personnel are fully acknowledged, it is argued that the development of an improved way of working is of major importance. Failure to do so, will lead to a continuation of unnecessary loss of life and/or suffering for those affected. Not least because of the high percentage of assistance budgets spent on logistics, this area represents fertile ground for developing improved processes and understanding, especially when faced with the challenges of assessing the beneficiaries’ needs and of inter-agency coordination. In practice, the demands placed on both civilian and military logisticians are broadly similar, as is the solution space. By speaking a common language and using common concepts, it is argued, therefore, that the logistic profession should be in…

Read More

Realising the “Imagined armies of expert civilians” – A summary of national civilian capacity arrangements for conflict management

Abstract The predominance and complexity of intrastate conflict creates huge demands for civilian capacity support to meet the urgent needs of communities in the immediate aftermath of conflict. For this reason, peace and stabilisation missions have become increasingly civilianised over the past decade. In response, there has been considerable activity over the past decade to develop rapidly deployable civilian capacity arrangements in support of missions deployed to conflict and post-conflict countries. Currently, these arrangements are predominantly national and found among a small number of western countries. Significant challenges exist, relating to the multiplicity of arrangements and the dearth of multilateral linkages, the delicate balance between providing needed international capacity and building host nation capacity, the inherent difficulties associated with multi-agency structures, and the interaction with international civilian capacities already on the ground. The field of rapidly deployable civilian capacity is rapidly evolving. New arrangements are currently being developed and considered, including in the global South, initiatives are underway to improve existing arrangements, and proposals are being put forward for new arrangements. This paper was prepared as a background paper for the Civil-Military Interaction Seminar (6–9 December 2010, Sydney, Australia) organised by the Asia Pacific Civil-Military Centre of Excellence on Advancing Civil-Military Effectiveness in Conflicts and Disasters: From Theory to Practice. Sarah Shteir Sarah Shteir is a…

Read More