Archive

Civil-Military Occasional Paper 1-2016 – Illicit Small Arms in the Pacific

Abstract With the exception of Papua New Guinea, the number of illicit small arms likely to be in circulation in Western Pacific island countries is not particularly large or widespread. The region remains relatively ‘gun free’ as Philip Alpers’ recently proclaimed. Supply is not bountiful, controls in the form of regional and national laws are sound, disarmament and amnesties have been somewhat successful, and demand is neither strong nor state or region-wide—Papua New Guinea being the exception. In broader context, the Pacific Institute for Public Policy points out that: The Pacific has seen its share of coups and conflict, but deserves recognition for being a largely peaceful region … It also has a wealth of traditional mechanisms to end conflict … It is worth bearing this in mind as the region develops a more ‘bottom-up’ approach to contemporary security issues. The project conducted a strategic assessment, rather than a detailed stocktake, of the illicit small arms in the Western Pacific island region with a focus on Fiji, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea (excluding Bougainville). As anticipated, most of the illicit small arms in the region come from within the countries studied and are largely recirculated within them. However, there are…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 4-2015 – Women, Peace and Security: Reflections from Australian male leaders

Abstract The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has come a long way in understanding the importance of gender diversity to our organisation. We recognise that our future defence capability will depend on recruiting the best people from all sectors of society. Women represent over 50 per cent of Australia’s population and we need to tap more effectively into this talent pool. Initiatives over the past two decades have seen an increasingly successful integration of women into the three services. More recently, there has been a concerted effort to incorporate gender considerations into policies, training, planning and on operations. The Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda has been a critical guide in this learning process. I, and the ADF senior leaders, strongly support the Defence Implementation Plan (DIP), part of the Australian National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security 2012–2018. We are committed to fully integrating women and gender considerations into the ADF. New policies and programs and senior leadership efforts are not enough to bring about the deep cultural change that is needed. The change we seek is not just about employing more women. We need to normalise WPS and incorporate its principle into our everyday decision making. In order…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 2-2015 – Security Sector Reform Trends: Conflict-Affected States and International Responses

Abstract This background paper outlines issues that emerged from research commissioned by the Australian Civil-Military Centre (ACMC) in early 2013 to map international perspectives and trends in security sector reform (SSR). The concept of SSR has evolved over the last two decades to describe a range of efforts to improve the security of a state and its citizens through an effective, affordable, accountable and transparent security sector. In all cases, but particularly for conflict-affected states, SSR is about governance of the security sector. Many Australian government departments and agencies, civil society and other organisations have contributed to SSR throughout the post-Cold War period. One trend observed in war-to-peace transitions after the Cold War is that the more expansive peace processes that follow complex civil wars still centre on first gaining agreement about future security arrangements. Some of the most common provisions in peace agreements include restructuring the security apparatus, demobilisation, and re-establishing civilian oversight over state security institutions. These ambitious goals mean timing, sequencing and political legitimacy are critical to achieve meaningful reform within and between those institutions. Transitional political arrangements after conflict—in place until the first post-conflict elections—were shorter (under two years) in many cases in the 1990s, and…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 1-2015 – Privateers in Australia’s Conflict and Disaster Zones

Abstract In the conflict and disaster zones where Australia’s military, representatives and aid workers have deployed in the past two decades, private security companies (PSCs) have been a feature of the operating environment, used by other governments, militaries, non-government organisations and multinational companies. Now, PSCs have become an integral part of Australian Government operations overseas. They are employed to secure diplomats in high threat environments, assess security at Australian facilities, and to protect government officials during overseas visits. In Australia’s region too, PSCs are becoming more common, particularly in Papua New Guinea and on commercial shipping in the Indian Ocean. This paper tracks the development of the private security industry and its relevance to Australia. It illustrates how and where PSCs operate and considers the lessons learned from a decade of employing PSCs—particularly those operating in war zones. It tracks the various international efforts underway to regulate and improve the private security industry, as well as the current and future issues Australians should be aware of when interacting with PSCs. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 3-2014 – Survey of Australian not-for-profit experiences: Security sector reform in conflict-affected states

Abstract In the twenty years since the end of the Cold War, Australian not-for-profits (NFPs) have found a range of ways to support societies manage transitions from warfighting postures to modes of peaceful coexistence, and from military governments to civilian-led democracies. In managing the transitions, these societies have relied heavily on the expertise and relative neutrality of national and international civil society organisations. These organisations have helped national political and military leaders find and return to a path of reconciling former combatants and enemies, and deciding how to re‑establish viable security institutions that respond to civilian control and enjoy sufficient public trust. Very little information has been collected to understand the nature and scope of these experiences, however, so in 2013 the Australian Government tasked the Australian Civil-Military Centre (ACMC) to commission a survey of Australian NFP work in support of security sector reform (SSR). Specifically, SSR is understood to be a concept that ‘evolved over the last two decades to describe a range of efforts to improve the security of a state and its citizens, through an effective, affordable, accountable and transparent security sector. In all cases, but particularly for conflict-affected states, SSR is about the governance of the…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 2-2014 – The Links Between Security Sector Reform and Development

Abstract This paper explores the relationship between security and development, with a focus on how different types of violence inhibit development in fragile and conflict-affected states. This paper is based upon a comprehensive literature review of separate pieces of research including academic studies, datasets and policy analysis. It explores statistics and figures that illustrate the barriers that insecurity poses to achieving development outcomes in fragile and conflict-afflicted states. It also examines these dynamics in detail in four countries: Afghanistan, Solomon Islands, South Sudan and Timor-Leste. The assignment was not to come up with policy recommendations per se; rather it was to present a comprehensive synopsis of how different types of violence shackles and inhibits development in fragile and conflict-affected states. The research team believes that the material presented will be of use to inform policy debate and development, including in the field of security sector reform. The analysis is contextualised by focusing on three types of violence: political, criminal and interpersonal. The barriers these different types of violence pose to development is presented throughout the report, and embedded in the country case studies. The statistics uncovered in the course of the project are stark and unnerving. These statistics, among others,…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 1-2014 – Conflict-related Sexual and Gender-based Violence

Abstract Sexual and gender-based violence is widespread in conflict-affected environments. The field of conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence is active and constantly expanding. Recent research and analysis are drawing attention to the complexity of this form of violence, reflecting a shift away from simplified narratives. They also point to the need for a more inclusive understanding of sexual violence, which acknowledges, for example, male victims and survivors, as well as the experiences and motivations of perpetrators. The wealth of information, activity and debate that characterises this field can be daunting. This paper offers an introductory overview of conflict- related sexual and gender-based violence, in particular for those who are beginning their involvement with the subject—whether they are civilian, military or police. It examines a number of dominant patterns of sexual and gender-based violence in conflict-affected environments. It surveys a range of causes and motivations that can contribute to the perpetration of this form of violence, and explores persistent gaps and weaknesses in current efforts to deal with such violence. Throughout the report, where relevant, information is provided about what is being done to prevent and respond to conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence, with a sampling of efforts from the international,…

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Civil-Military Occasional Paper 1-2013 – Gendered Crises, Gendered Responses

Abstract Armed conflicts and natural disasters are inherently gendered crises; they can affect women, men, girls and boys in profoundly different ways. It is increasingly accepted that understanding these differences—or adopting a gender perspective—improves the effectiveness of responses to these crises, as well as the efforts of policy-making, advocacy, research and training institutions that focus on them. A gender perspective is more frequently recognised as a core requirement for all personnel involved in these efforts. However, there are many who are expected to engage with gender issues, yet remain unfamiliar with them. For this audience, there is a dearth of literature that provides an introductory overview of gender issues in crisis environments. This paper is intended to be an educational and awareness-raising resource for those who are beginning to engage with gender issues in crisis environments, whether they are civilian, military or police. It examines gender dimensions commonly observed in conflict and disaster environments, such as differences in casualty trends, risks, threats, vulnerabilities, needs, opportunities and stresses. It provides examples of the operational benefits of a gender perspective and the harmful consequences resulting from the absence of a gender perspective. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu

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Counterinsurgency and Certain Legal Aspects: A Snapshot of Afghanistan

Abstract This paper provides a snapshot of certain legal aspects of the civilian-military counterinsurgency campaign being conducted in Afghanistan by Coalition Forces in partnership with Afghan National Security Forces, together with civilian representatives of bodies such as the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, contributing government and regional organizations, and non-government and international organizations The snapshot is taken in May 2011. These legal aspects relate to the Rule of Law Field Force-Afghanistan, the Afghan Local Police program, and the ISAF detention. Dr Paul Muggleton Dr. Thomas [Paul] Muggleton, BA (Honours) (University of NSW, Faculty of Military Studies), LL B (ANU), Grad. Dip. Legal Practice (QUT), SJD (Melbourne University). Paul Muggleton is a graduate of the Royal Military College, Duntroon, and is a Colonel in the Australian Army Legal Corps serving in the Army Reserves. He has seen operational service in the Middle East, the Former Yugoslavia and Iraq. Associate Professor Bruce ‘Ossie’ Oswald Associate Professor Bruce ‘Ossie’ Oswald CSC, BBus (RMIT ), MA (Public Policy) (UKC), LL B (ANU), LL M (University of London), PhD (University of Melbourne). Ossie is a Lieutenant Colonel in the Australian Army Legal Corps and serves in the Army Reserves. He has seen operational…

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The Development of Civilian Policing: Lessons for Contemporary Post-conflict Operations

Abstract This article considers the historical separation of policing from military functions by outlining the key roles of police forces and analysing why policing was purposefully developed to differ from military structures and roles. In doing so, this paper contributes to our understanding of contemporary challenges with respect to identifying appropriate policing and military roles in international contexts. Focusing primarily on the Anglo experience of developments in policing, the paper also addresses the question as to why alternative forms of ‘Continental’ policing arose in Europe. In particular, the paper considers the question as to what constitutes legitimate forms of policing in such different contexts as, in understanding the genesis of current policing models and alternative possibilities for the relationship between police and military forces, we may hope to better understand the options for police and military roles in post-conflict settings. Dr Fish is an Associate Professor in Philosophy at Massey University. Dr Greener is Senior Lecturer in International Relations at Massey University and has published widely on international security-related matters; her book The New International Policing was published in 2009. Downloads View this publication on Academia.edu  

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